عوامل خاکی مؤثر بر پراکنش گونه های گیاهی در شدت های مختلف چرا در مراتع خرابه‌سنجی ارومیه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم مرتع، گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل

2 دانشجوی دکتری علوم مرتع، گروه مرتعداری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

3 استادیار مرتعداری، گروه مرتعداری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس تهران

4 استادیار مرتعداری، گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

بررسی تغییرات کمی و کیفی پوشش گیاهی و خاک در طول گرادیان چرایی دام به منظور شناخت تغییرات پسرونده در وضعیت پوشش گیاهی و خاک و به تبع آن اصلاح شیوه مدیریت مرتع، امری ضروری است. مطالعه حاضر با هدف شناسایی فاکتور­های خاکی موثر بر پراکنش پوشش گیاهی در شدت­های مختلف چرا در مراتع خرابه سنجی ارومیه صورت گرفت. نمونه برداری در خرداد ماه 1390 به روش تصادفی- سیستماتیک در سه منطقه با شدت­های چرایی کم، متوسط و زیاد صورت گرفت. بدین منظور در هر منطقه، 6 ترانسکت 100 متری و در طول هر ترانسکت 10 پلات یک متر­ مربعی مستقر گردید. همچنین گونه­های موجود در هر پلات شناسائی و درصد پوشش گیاهی، تراکم و فراوانی هر یک از گونه­ها ثبت گردید. همچنین در داخل هر پلات از عمق 30-0 سانتیمتری سطح خاک، نمونه­های خاک برداشت شد و وزن مخصوص ظاهری، درصد رطوبت نسبی، EC، pH، ماده آلی، کربن، نیتروژن، مواده آلی ذره­ای و بافت خاک اندازه­گیری شد. به منظور تعیین روابط بین عوامل خاکی با پراکنش پوشش گیاهی، از تجزیه و تحلیل آماری چند متغیره (رج بندی) استفاده شد. رج­بندی جوامع گیاهی با توجه به خصوصیات خاکی به روش آنالیز تطبیقی متعارفی (DCA، RDA، CCA) صورت گرفت. نتایج رج بندی نشان داد که فاکتور نیتروژن در هر سه شدت چرایی، مهم­ترین عامل تاثیرگذار بر پراکنش گونه­ای بود. همچنین در شدت چرایی کم، رطوبت نسبی؛ در شدت چرایی متوسط، وزن مخصوص ظاهری و نیتروژن ذره­ای و در منطقه با شدت چرایی زیاد، نیتروژن ذره­ای و کربن ذره­ای به عنوان مهم ترین فاکتور­های تاثیر­گذار بر پراکنش پوشش گیاهی شناخته شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Soil Factors Affecting the Distribution of Plant Species at Different Intensities of Grazing at Kharab-e-Sanji Rangelands in Urmia

نویسندگان [English]

  • Behnam Bahrami 1
  • Paria Kamali 2
  • Reza Erfanzadeh 3
  • Javad Motamedi 4
1 Associate Professor .PhD Student of Rangeland Science at the University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 PhD Student of Rangeland Science at Gorgan University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Rangeland Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Rangeland Department, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative changes in vegetation and soil during the grazing gradient is necessary in order to recognize the regressive changes in the vegetation and soil, and consequently to improve the range management practices. The present study was carried out with the purpose of identifying soil factors affecting the vegetation distribution with various grazing intensities in rangelands of Kharab-e-Sanji in Urmia. Systematic random sampling was conducted in late June to collect samples in three regions with low, medium, and high grazing intensities. In this regard, in each region six 100m transects and along each transect, ten 1 meters squared plots were placed. Moreover, the species present in each plot were identified and the vegetation cover percentage, density and frequency of each species were recorded. Furthermore, the samples were taken from 0-30cm depth of soil surface within each plot and the bulk density, relative humidity, EC, pH, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, particulate organic matter and soil texture were measured. To determine the relationship between the soil factors and distribution of vegetation, the multivariate analysis (ordination) was used. Ordination of plant communities due to soil properties was performed using Canonical Correspondence Analyses (DCA، RDA، CCA). Ordination results showed that nitrogen factor in all the three grazing intensities was the most important factor influencing the distribution of species. Moreover, at the low grazing intensity level, relative humidity; with the moderate grazing intensity, bulk density and particulate nitrogen; and in the regions with the high grazing density, particulate nitrogen and particulate carbon were considered as the most important factor influencing the distribution of vegetation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • grazing intensity
  • Canonical Correspondence Analysis
  • Particulate nitrogen
  • Particulate carbon
  • Kharab-e-Sanji pastures in Urmia
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