تأثیر ایجاد سدهای کوتاه اصلاحی بر تنوع گونه ای گیاهی در زیرحوزه های آبخیز عنبران چای

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات مرتع، موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده ی منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد مرتعداری، ادار ه کل منابع طبیعی و آبخیزداری اردبیل، اردبیل، ایران

4 دکترای علوم مرتع، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

باوجود سابق هی طولانی اجرای طر حهای آبخیزداری، کمتر به ارزیابی تأثیرهای این طرح ها در پوشش گیاهی و مخصوصاً تنوع گون هیی، توجه شده است. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تأثیر عملیات آبخیزداری )ایجاد سدهای کوتاه( بر تغییرات تنوع گونه یی زیرحوزه ها در منطق هی عنبران اردبیل بود. زیرحوز ههایی که در آ نها سدهای کوتاه آبخیزداری در حدود یک دهه پیش ساخته شده بود، حوز ههای آبخیز آزمایشی و زیرحوز ههایی که در آ نها طرح اجرا نشده بود و از نظر خصوصی تهای محیطی مشابه بودند، حوز ههای شاهد گرفته شد. با استفاده از روش تصادفی نظا ممند، در هر یک از زیرحوز هها 20 قطعه ی یک مترمربعی در امتداد شش چارچوب 150 - 100 متری در امتداد و کنار هی آب راه ها گذاشته شد. درصد پوشش تاجی و تعداد پایه های هر گونه ثبت، و بر مبنای آ نها، شاخ صهای عددی غنای گون هیی، یکنواختی و تنوع گونه یی محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین شاخص های عددی غنای گونه یی مارگالف، یکنواختی سیمپسون و تنوع گونه یی شانون-وینر ) 74 / 1، 65 / 0 و 41 / 1( در حوزه های آبخیز آزمایشی از حوزه های آبخیز شاهد ) 68 / 1، 63 / 0 و 3 6/ 1( بی شتر بود، اما این تفاوت از دیدگاه آماری معن یدار نبود. باای نحال، براساس منحنی درجه بندی تنوعِ مبتنی بر شاخص رنی، اند از ههای کلی تنوع در حوز ههای آزمایشی از حوز ههای شاهد بیشتر بود. مقدار معنی داری آماری میانگین شاخص های عددی غنای گونه یی مارگالف، یکنواختی سیمپسون و تنوع گونه یی شانون- وینر در حوزه های آبخیز جهت شمالی )ب هترتیب 85 / 1، 67 / 0 و 47 / 1( در مقایسه با حوزه های آبخیز جهت جنوبی ) 58 / 1، 61 / 0 و 30 / 1( بیش ترین بود. برهمین اساس می توان نتیجه گرفت که سدهای کوتاه اصلاحی، تأثیر بسزایی بر بهبود شاخ صهای تنوع گونه یی و تأمین هد فهای زیستی زیرحوز هها داشته است. با توجه به این نتایج اجرای طرح های سد کوتاه در سایر شرایط محیطی مشابه پیشنهاد می شود. شاید زیرحوز ههایی که سدهای کوتاه در آن است، مکا نهای اولویت دار برای حفاظت تنوع گیاهی باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Check Dams on Plant Species Diversity in Subbasins of Anbaran-Chai

نویسندگان [English]

  • Javad Motamedi 1
  • Esmaeil Sheidai Karkaj 2
  • Mehdi Ashayer 3
  • Morteza Mofidi Chelan 4
1 Associate Professor, Rangeland Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
3 M.Sc. in Rangeland Management, Ardabil Bureau of Natural Resourse and Watershed Management, Ardabil, Iran
4 Ph.D in Rangeland Scinces, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Despite the long history of implementing watershed management restorative projects, evaluation of the effects of these projects on vegetation and in particular the species diversity of plants has been neglected. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of watershed management projects (Check Dam) on the variation of sub-basin species diversity in Anbaran area of Ardabil. In 2017 sub-basins where check dams were established about a decade ago, were considered as
experimental watersheds, and subbasins with no implementation and similar in terms of environmental characteristics, were considered as control. Using a systematic randomized method, 20 plots of one square meter were established in each of the subbasins, along with six transects of 150–100 meters along the sides of the waterways.Percentage of crown cover and the number of bases of any species were recorded, and numerical indices of species richness, evennsess and
species diversity were calculated. Results showed that despite means of Margalef Species Richness Index, Simpson Uniformity Index, and Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index (1.74, 0.65 and 1.41) were higher in experimental watersheds than controls (1.68, 0.63 and 1.36), differences were not statistically significant. However, based on the Renyi Index based diversity curve, the experimental basins had a high diversity in comparison with the control basins. Meanwhile, the mean Margalef Species Richness, Simpson Uniformity Index and Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index in the northern watersheds (1.85, 0.67 and 1.47, respectively) were significantly higher than the southern watersheds (1.58, 0.61 and 1.30). Accordingly, it can be concluded that the check dam projects have had a significant impact on the improvement of diversity index and supporting the biological objectives in the subbasins. According to the results, implementation of check dam projects is recommended in other similar environmental conditions. Sub basins with check dams can be considered as priority locations to protect vegetation diversity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Check dam
  • mountain range lands
  • species diversity
  • vegetative cover
  • water way
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