اثر حفاظتی کاه‌ و کلش کلزا (.Brassica napus L) بر مهارکردن روان‌آب و هدررفتن خاک با استفاده از شبیه‌سازی باران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده‌ی منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده‌ی منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده‌ی منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

4 دانشیار گروه مهندسی مرتع‌داری، دانشکده‌ی منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

چکیده

فرسایش خاک مشکلی جهانی است که به­طور جدی منابع آب و خاک را تهدید می‌کند. این پژوهش برای بررسی اثر پوشش حفاظتی کاه‌وکلش کلزا بر تغییرات روان‌آب و رسوب در مقیاس کرت­های آزمایشگاهی با استفاده از شبیه­ساز باران انجام شد. سه سطح پوشش حفاظتی 25، 50 و 75 % خاک‌پوش‏ و یک تیمار شاهد (بی‌پوشش حفاظتی) با سه تراز رطوبت 15، 20 و 30 %، در سه تکرار انتخاب شد. نتایج نشان داد که اعمال تیمار حفاظتی کاه‌وکلش کلزا تاثیر معنی‌داری بر کاهش روان‌آب و رسوب داشته ­است. مشخص شد که در تمام ترازهای رطوبت در هر سه سطح پوشش حفاظتی، حجم روان‌آب به ­ترتیب 13/144 و 26/29 و31/52 %، و رسوب به­ترتیب 41/21 و 72/4 و 78/78 % کاهش یافته است. این روند کاهشی با افزایش پوشش حفاظتی از بی‌پوشش به پوشش­های وسیع‌‌تر بیش­تر بود، به‌طوری­که کم­ترین اندازه‌ی روان‌آب (1821 میلی­لیتر) و رسوب تولیدشده (58 گرم) در پوشش حفاظتی 75% با رطوبت 15 %، و بیش­ترین اندازه‌ی تولیدشده در تیمار بی‌پوشش حفاظتی (شاهد) در تراز رطوبت 30% (5501 میلی­لیتر و 522 گرم) بود. با افزایش تراز رطوبت، اندازه‌ی روان‌آب و رسوب تولیدشده افزایش یافت. علاوه‌برآن، در همین ترازهای رطوبت، پس از اعمال پوشش حفاظتی تولید روان‌آب و رسوب کم‌تر شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Protective Impact of Colza Straw (Brassica napus L.) on Runoff and Soil Loss Control Using Rainfall Simulation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahin Kale hoei 1
  • Ataollah Kavian 2
  • Leila Gholami 3
  • Zeinab Jafarian 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Watershed Management Sciences and Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Watershed Management Engineering, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Watershed Management Engineering, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Range Management, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil erosion is a global problem that seriously threatens soil and water resources. This research was conducted to study the effect of protection of colza straw on runoff and sediment yield from the laboratory plots using the rainfall simulator. Three coverage of 25, 50 and 75% of colza straw mulches and a control treatment (without coverage) were considered with three moisture levels of 15, 20 and 30% in three replications. The results showed that colza straw had a significant effect on runoff and sediment reduction. All moisture levels in three protective coverage levels decreased runoff volume by13.14, 26.29 and 31.52%, respectively, and sediment yield by 41.21, 72.4 and 78.78%, respectively. With increasing of protection coverages from no cover to the higher coverages, the trend of runoff and sediment yield decreased, so that the lowest amount of runoff (1821 ml) and sediment yield (58 g) were measured in the protective coverage of 75% with the moisture of 15%. The highest amount of runoff (5501 ml) and sediment yield (522 g) were observed in the control treatment at a moisture level of 30%. With increasing the moisture levels from the amount of runoff and sediment yield increased. Moreover, by applying the protective cover, runoff and sediment yield decreased at the same moisture levels.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • laboratory plots
  • moisture levels
  • rainfall duration
  • rainfall intensity
  • soil erosion
Abassi E, Kavian A, Jafarian Z. 2013. The role of Artemisia rangeland plant on decreasing soil loss. Extension and Development of Watershed Management. 1(1): 1–6. (In Persian).

Adekalu KO, Olorunfemi IA, Osunbitan JA. 2007. Grass mulching effect on filtration, surface runoff and soil loss of three agricultural soil in Negria. Bioresource Technology. 98: (4) 912–917.

Ansari N. 2007. Watershed regeneration methods with coverage vegetation.Publication of Applied Higher Education Institution of Agricultural Jihad. 143 pp. (In Persian).

Azmoodeh A, Kavian A, Solaimani K, Vahabzadeh Gh. 2010. Comparing runoff and soil erosion in forest, dry farming and garden Land uses soils using rainfall simulator. Journal of Water and Soil. 24(3): 490–500. (In Persian).

Bayat Movahed F, Nikkami D, Shami H. 2009. Soil erosion mitigation approaches in rainfed farms. Journal of Watershed Engineering and Management. 1(4): 275–278. (In Persian).

Bhatt R, Khera KL. 2006. Effect of tillage and mode of straw mulch application on soil erosion in the submontaneous tract of Punjab, India. Soil and Tillage Research. 88(1): 107–115.

Defersha MB, Quraishi S, Mellese AM. 2011. The effect of slope steepness and antecedent moisture content on interrill erosion, runoff and sediment size distribution in highlands of Ethiopia. Hydrology and Earth System Science 15(7): 2367–2375.

Donjadee S, Tingsanchali T. 2016. Soil and water conservation on steep slopes by mulching using rice straw and vetiver grass clippings. Agriculture and Natural Resources. 50(1): 75–79.

Doring FT, Brandt M, He J, Finckh MR, Saucke H. 2005. Effects of straw mulch on soil nitrate dynamics, weeds yield and soil erosion in organically grown potatoes. Field Crops Research. 94(2–3): 238–249.

Edwards LM, Volk A, Burney JR. 2000. Mulching potatoes: Aspects of mulch management systems and soil erosion. American Journal of Potato Research. 77(4): 225–232.‏

Gallagher AV, Wollenhaupt NC, Bosworth AH. 1996. Vegetation management and interrill erosion in no-till corn following alfalfa. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 60(4): 1217–1222.

Gholami L, Sadeghi SHR, Homaee M. 2013. Straw mulching effect on splash erosion runoff and sediment yield from eroded plots. Soil Science of Society American Journal. 77(1): 268–278.

Gholami L, Banasik K, Sadeghi SHR, Khaledi Darvishan A, Hejduk L. 2014. Effectiveness of straw mulch on infiltration, splash erosion, runoff and sediment in laboratory conditions. Journal of Water and Land Development. 22(1): 51–60.

Gholami L, Sadeghi SHR, Homaee M. 2015. Effect of rice straw mulch on runoff threshold and coefficient from rainfall. Iranian Water Resource Journal. 8(15): 33–40. (In Persian).

Groenier J, Foltz R, Showers C. 2005. Using rainfall simulators to test wood shreddings for erosion control. Engineering Tech. Tips. Missoula, MT, USDA Forest Service, Technology Development Program.

Gvancheng H. 2004. Consideration on the integrated watershed management in the western China. In: The Proceeding of Symposium on Hydropower and Sustainable Development, Beijing, China. 24–27.

Hamsi SA, Piroz M. 2006. Evaluation of chemical properties and anatomy of canola stem. Scientific Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 12(3): 647–656. (In Persian).

Jiang L, Dami I, Mathers HM, Dick WA, Doohan D. 2011. The effect of straw mulch on simulated simazine leaching and runoff. Weed Science. 59(4): 580–586.

Jordán A, Zavala LM, Gil J. 2010. Effects of mulching on soil physical properties and runoff under semi-arid conditions in southern Spain.Catena. 81(1): 77–85.

Karimi Z, Sadeghi SHR, Bahrami HA. 2015.Variations of runoff generation during rainfall event when different levels of polyacrylamide in its powder vs liquid form applied. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water. 46(3): 443–453. (In Persian).

Kavian A, Azmodeh A, Soleimani K, Vahabzadeh Gh. 2010. Effect of soil properties on runoff and soil erosion in forest lands. Journal of Rangeland and Watershed Management. 63(1):89–114. (In Persian).

Kavian A, Asgariyan R, Jafarian Z, Bahmanyar MA. 2013. Effect of soil properties on runoff and sediment yield in farm scale (Case study: A part of Sari Town, neighboring croplands). Water and Soil Science. 23(4): 45–57. (In Persian).

Kavian A, Hayavi F, Boroghani M. 2014. Polyacrylamide effects on splash erosion rate in different soils using rainfall simulator. Journal of Rangeland and Watershed Management 67(2): 203–2016. (In Persian).

Kavian A, Mohammadi M, Fallah M, Gholami L. 2015. Effect of wheat straw on changing time to runoff and runoff coefficient in laboratory plots under rainfall simulation. Journal Water and Soil Resources Conservation 15(2): 73–81. (In Persian).

Kavian A, Abassi E, Jafarian Z. 2016. Effect of Agropyron elongatum residue on decreasing runoff and soil loss- An experimental study using rainfall simulator. Watershed Management Research (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi). 29(1): 33–40. (In Persian).

Kavian A, Gholami L, Mohammadi M, Spalevic V, Fallah M. 2018. Impact of Wheat Residue on Soil Erosion Processes. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 46(2): 553–562.

Kelarestaghi A, Ahmadi H, Esmali A, Jafari M, Ghodosi J. 2009. Comparison of runoff and sediment yield from different agricultural treatments. Iranian Journal of Watershed Science and Engineering. 2(5): 41–52. (In Persian).

Khaledi Darvishan A, Sadeghi SHR, Homaee M, Arabkhadri M. 2014. Affectability of runoff threshold and coefficient from rainfall intensity and antecedent soil moisture content in laboratorial erosion plots. Iran Water Research Journal. 8(15):41–49. (In Persian).

Kim HJ, Sidle RC, Moore RD. 2005. Shallow lateral flow from a forested hill slope: Influence of antecedent wetness Catena. 60(3): 293–306.

Kukal SS, Sarkar M. 2010. Splash erosion and infiltration in relation to mulching and polyvinyl alcohol application in semi-arid tropics. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science. 56 (46): 697–705.

Lal R. 1976. Soil erosion on Alfisols in western Nigeria: II. Effect of mulch rates. Geoderma. 16(5): 389–401.

Le Bissonnais Y, Renaux B, Delouche H. 1995. Interactions between soil properties and moisture content in crust formation, runoff and interrill erosion from tilled loess soils. Catena. 25(1): 33–46.

Lin J, Zhu G, Wei J, Jiang F, Wang MK, Huang Y. 2018. Mulching effects on erosion from steep slopes and sediment particle size distributions of gully colluvial deposits. Catena. 160: 57–67.

Marques MJ, Bienes R, Jiménez L, Pérez-Rodríguez R. 2007. Effect of vegetal cover on runoff and soil erosion under light intensity events. Rainfall simulation over USLE plots.Science of the Total Environment. 378: (1–2)161–165.

Miyata S, Kosugi K, Gomi T, Mizuyama T. 2009. Effects of forest floor coverage on overland flow and soil erosion on hillslopes in Japanese cypress plantation forests. Water Resources Research. 45(6): 1–17.

Moreno-de las H, Merino-Martin L, Nicolau JM. 2009. Effect of vegetation cover on the hydrology of reclaimed mining soils under Mediterranean- continental climate. Catena. 77(1): 39–47.

Morgan RPC. 1986. Soil erosion and conservation. Longman Scientific and Technical, Burnt Mile, Harlow, UK. 298 p.

Mosaffaie J, Talebi A. 2014. A statistical view to the water erosion in Iran. Extention and Devolopment of Watershed Management. 2(5): 9–17. (In Persian).

Nunes AN, Coelho COA, Almeida AC, Figueiredo A. 2010. Soil erosion and hydrological response to land abandonment in a central Inland area of Portugal. Land Degradation and Development. 21(3): 260–273.

Orsham A, Akhund Ali AM, Behnia A. 2010. Effect of soil antecedent moisture contents on runoff and sedimentation values with simulated rainfall method. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research. 16(4): 445–455.‏ (In Persian).

Pappas EA, Smith DR, Huang C, Shuster WD, Bonta JV. 2008. Impervious surface impacts to runoff and sediment discharge under laboratory rainfall simulation, Catena. 72(1): 146–152.

Pimentel D, Harvey C, Resosudarmo P, Sinclair K, Kurz D, McNair M, Crist S, Shprits L. 1995. Environmental and Econamic Costs of Soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science, New Series. 267(5201): 1117–1123.

Prosdocimi M, Jordán A, Tarolli P, Keesstra S, Novara A, Cerdà A. 2016. The immediate effectiveness of barley straw mulch in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff generation in Mediterranean vineyards. Science of the Total Environment. 547(15): 323–330.

Refahi HG. 1997. Water erosion and control. First edition, University of Tehran Press. 265 p.

Rudolph A, Helming K, Diestel H. 1997. Effect of antecedent water content and rainfall regime on microrelief changes. Soil Technol. 10(1): 69–81.

Ruy S, Findeling A, Chadoeuf J. 2006. Effect of mulching techniques on plot scalerunoff: FDTF modeling and sensitivity analysis. Journal of Hydrology. 326(1): 277–294.

Sadeghi SHR, Gholami L, Homaee M, Khaledi Darvishan A. 2015. Reducing sediment concentration and soil loss using organic and inorganic amendments at plot scale. Solid Earth. 6(2): 445–455.

Sadeghi SHR, Hazbavi Z, Younesi H, Behzaffar M. 2013. Trend of soil loss and sediment concentration changeability due to application of polyacrylamide. Journal of Water and Soil Resources Conservation. 2(4):53–67. (In Persian).

Sadeghi SHR, Sharifi Moghadam A, Gholami L. 2014. Effect of rice straw on surface runoff and soil loss in small plots. Journal of Water and Soil Resources Conservation. 3(4): 73–83. (In Persian).

Sepehr A, Honarmandnejad S. 2012. Actual soil erosion risk mapping using modified CORINE method (Case study: Jahrom Basin). Geography and Environmental Hazard. 3: 57–72. (In Persian).

Smolikowski B, Puig H, Roose E. 2001. Influence of soil protection techniques on runoff, erosion and plant production on semi-arid hillsides of Cabo Verde. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 87(1): 67–80.‏

Wang L, Ma B, Wu F. 2017. Effects of wheat stubble on runoff, infiltration, and erosion of farmland on the Loess Plateau, China, subjected to simulated rainfall. Solid Earth . 8(2): 281–290.