مدل‌سازی توزیع مکانی تغذیه‌ در آبخوان‌های کارستی آبخیز تنگ خوش (استان بوشهر) با روش کارست‌لوپ

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دکترای علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکده ی منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار، دانشکده ی منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشیار، دانشکده ی علوم، دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

ارزیابی توزیع مکانی تغذیه در منطقه‌های کارستی نقش مهمی در مدیریت و حفاظت از منابع آبی دارد. به‌دلیل پیچیدگی شرایط طبیعی و حرکت آب در منطقه‌های کارستی، چگونگی تغذیه در آبخوان‌های کارستی پیچیده است و به‌کاربردن روش‌های مرسوم اندازه‌گیری تغذیه در ناحیه‌های کارستی نتیجه‌ی رضایت‌بخشی نداشته است. کارست‌لوپ روشی جدید برای تهیه‌کردن نقشه‌ی توزیع مکانی تغذیه و محاسبه‌کردن میانگین تغذیه در حوزه است. هدف از این پژوهش مدل‌سازی‌کردن توزیع مکانی تغذیه با روش کارست‌لوپ در آبخیز تنگ‌خوش استان بوشهر است. نقشه‌ی پهنه‌بندی منطقه‌های تغذیه با روش کارست‌لوپ در نرم‌افزار ArcGIS تهیه و برای ارزیابی‌کردن دقت آن در یافتن محل‌های تغذیه، نتیجه با نقشه‌ی زمین‌ریخت‌شناسی کارست سطحی، و ارتفاع محل‌های تغذیه‌ی برآوردشده با شیب ارتفاعی ایزوتوپی مقایسه‌کرده‌ شد. شیب ارتفاعی ایزوتوپی با محتوای ایزوتوپی نمونه‌‌های بارش و ارتفاع محل‌های نمونه‌برداری در دوره‌ی 1396-1395 ترسیم کرده‌شد. بررسی نقشه‌ی رقومی تغذیه با روش کارست‌لوپ نشان داد که تغذیه در 45% از مساحت حوزه بیش از 60% است، و این محل‌ها بر سازندهای آهکی منطبق است و بیش‌ترین تراکم رخساره‌های کارستی در آن است. ارتفاع محل‌های تغذیه‌ی چشمه‌های دوین سرمستان، گنوی و تنگ‌خوش با شیب ارتفاعی ایزوتوپی به ترتیب 395، 376 و 429 متر برآورد کرده‌شد (در طبقه‌ی 550-350)، و نقشه‌ی توزیع مکانی تغذیه‌ی به‌دست‌آمده با روش کارست‌لوپ نشان داد که بر طبقه‌ی بیش‌ترین تغذیه (76 تا 86%) منطبق است. مقایسه‌ی نقشه‌ی تغذیه‌ی روش کارست‌لوپ با ارتفاع محل‌های تغذیه‌ی چشمه‌ها با شیب ارتفاعی ایزوتوپی نشان داد که کارآیی روش کارست‌لوپ در شناختن محدوده‌ی بیش‌ترین تغذیه، و مدل‌سازی توزیع مکانی تغذیه در آبخیز تنگ‌خوش پذیرفتنی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Modeling of Recharge Spatial Distribution in Karst Aquifers of Tangekhosh Watershed (Bushehr Province) Using the KARSTLOP Method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Tavakolirad 1
  • Ali Akbar Nazari Samani 2
  • Arash Malekian 2
  • Zargham Mohammadi 3
1 Ph.D. Graduated of Watershed Science and Engineering, Natural Resources Faculty, Tehran
2 Associate Professor, Natural Resources Faculty, Tehran University
3 Associate Professor, Sciences Faculty, Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

Assessing the spatial distribution of recharge in karstified terrains is very important for water management and protection, but it is a complex issue due to the complexity of natural conditions and water movement in karst areas, and the application of conventional methods has not provided satisfactory results in these terrains. The KARSTLOP method is a new technique to display the spatial distribution map of recharge and arrive at the statistical mean value of the recharge in a watershed. The purpose of this study was modelling the spatial distribution of recharge using the KARSTLOP method in the Tangekhosh Watershed of Bushehr Province. The zoning map of recharge areas was prepared using the KARSTLOP method in the ArcGIS software. The results were compared with the geomorphologic map of the surface karst and the height of recharge estimated by the altitudinal isotopic gradient in order to evaluate the model's accuracy in estimating the values of recharge. Altitudinal isotopic gradient was drawn using the isotopic content of precipitation samples and the height of the sampling points during the 2016–2017 period. Digital recharge map obtained by the KARSTLOP method was shown that 45 percentage of the watershed areas had more than 60 percentage of the recharge, which corresponded to the limestone formations that contained a maximum density of the karstic landforms. The height of the recharge points of the Dovin Sarmastan, Ganavi and Tangekhosh springs was estimated at 395, 376 and 429 meters, respectively, using the altitudinal isotopic gradient method, which were placed in the altitude range of 350-550 meter and it contains the maximum recharge zone (76 to 86 percentage) of the KARSTLOP method. The comparison of the KARSTLOP recharge map with that of the recharge height of the springs using the altitudinal isotopic gradient indicated that the KARSTLOP method performed acceptably in determining the maximum recharge range and the spatial distribution of recharge in the Tangkhosh Watershed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Altitudinal isotopic gradient
  • karst aquifer
  • KARSTLOP method
  • recharge
  • Tangekhosh Watershed
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