شناسایی و اولویت بندی عامل‌های مؤثر بر مشارکت نداشتن جامعه‌های روستایی در طرح‌های آبخیزداری در آبخیز آسمان آباد استان ایلام

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی و آبخیزداری مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ایلام، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایلام، ایران

2 دانشیار، پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

10.22092/wmrj.2023.360304.1493

چکیده

مقدمه و هدف
مشارکت روستاییان در فعالیت‌های آبخیزداری، مدت زمانی است که به‌وسیله‌ی برنامه‌ریزان کشور به آن توجه شده است. بررسی‌ها نشان داده است که اندازه‌ی مشارکت مردم به اندازه‌ی انتظار نبوده است. این پژوهش در راستای شناخت ویژگی‌های ‏اجتماعی- اقتصادی جامعه‌های محلی، شناسایی شاخص ­های مؤثر بر کاهش موانع و افزایش ‏مشارکت مردمی در اجرای طرح‌های منابع‌طبیعی و ‏آبخیزداری، شناخت انتظارها و نیازهای جامعه‌ی محلی و در نهایت ارائه‌ی راهکارهای علمی و فنی با هدف ‏افزایش اندازه‌ی مشارکت مردمی در منطقه‌ی آسمان­ آباد شهرستان چرداول انجام شد.
 مواد و روش‌ها
در این پژوهش، شاخص‌های تأثیرگذار بر مشارکت نداشتن روستاییان در فعالیت­ های آبخیزداری بر اساس چهار  شاخص اقتصادی، اجتماعی، طراحی- اجرایی و آموزشی- ترویجی و با 12 زیر شاخص تعیین و دسته‌بندی شدند. اطلاعات لازم در این پژوهش به‌شکل پیمایشی و با استفاده از ‏ابزار پرسش‌نامه، مصاحبه و نشست ­های پرشمار با افراد جامعه و خبرگان محلی جمع ­آوری شد. برای تعیین حجم نمونه از رابطه‌ی کوک ران، برای تجزیه‌ و تحلیل داده­ ها از نرم‌افزار SPSS و بررسی روایی پرسش‌نامه از آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد.
 نتایج و بحث
نتایج به ­دست آمده از این پژوهش نشان داد که در آبخیز آسمان­ آباد، شاخص‌های اقتصادی، طراحی و اجرایی در مشارکت نداشتن مردم نسبت به شاخص‌های آموزشی - ترویجی و اجتماعی نقش بیشتری داشتند. از دیدگاه کارشناسان، زیرشاخص نادیده گرفتن درآمد مردم به‌عنوان انگیزه‌ی­ اقتصادی مستقیم و توجه نداشتن به سازمان­ های غیر دولتی به ­ترتیب با میانگین رتبه‌ی 9/35 و 3/69 در مشارکت نداشتن مردم بیشترین و کمترین اهمیت را داشتند. از نظر جامعه‌های محلی نیز زیرشاخص ­های نادیده گرفتن درآمد مردم به‌عنوان انگیزه‌ی­ اقتصادی مستقیم و اعتماد نداشتن به نتایج و اثر بخشی طرح ­ها به ­ترتیب با میانگین رتبه‌ی 8/16 و 5/23 در مشارکت نداشتن مردم بیشترین و کمترین اهمیت را داشتند. نتیجه‌ی کلی نظرسنجی از جامعه‌های محلی بیان‌گر آن بود که عامل‌های اجرای طرح­ های چندمنظوره و در نظرداشتن منافع آبخیزنشینان می‌تواند در طرح­ های آبخیزداری زمینه‌ساز اعتماد و جلب مشارکت فعال مردم باشد.
نتیجه ­گیری و پیشنهادها
در آبخیز آسمان ­آباد اولویت‌بندی شاخص ­های مؤثر بر مشارکت نداشتن مردم در طرح ­های آبخیزداری نشان ­­داد که شاخص‌های اقتصادی و طراحی- اجرایی در مقایسه با شاخص‌های آموزشی - ترویجی و اجتماعی نقش بیشتری داشتند. همچنین نتایج وزن‌های به‌دست آمده از آزمون فرید­من برای رتبه‌بندی زیرشاخص ­های مؤثر بر مشارکت نداشتن مردم نشان ­داد که دو زیرشاخص­ نادیده گرفتن درآمد مردم به‌عنوان انگیزه‌ی­ اقتصادی مستقیم و توجه نکردن به نظرها و پیشنهادهای آبخیزنشینان در مرحله‌های مختلف نیازسنجی، طراحی و اجرای طرح ­های آبخیزداری، از دیدگاه هر دو گروه در چهار اولویت نخست بودند و در مشارکت نداشتن جامعه‌های روستایی نسبتاً اهمیت بیشتری داشتند. بنابراین با توجه به یافته‌های پژوهش به‌منظور ایجاد و یا بهبود مشارکت مردم در طرح­ های آبخیزداری در محدوده‌ی مطالعه شده، پیشنهاد می شود که قبل از اجرای طرح­ های منابع‌طبیعی و آبخیزداری، در رابطه با مشکلات موجود، شرایط منطقه و حتی لزوم اجرای طرح ­های مزبور نقطه نظرهای جامعه‌ی محلی جمع‌آوری شود. جلب نظر ساکنان آبخیز با هدف همکاری در اجرا، حفاظت، احیاء و نگهداری از طرح‌ها، استفاده‌ی متعادل و برابر ذی نفعان از منابع‌طبیعی، بهره‌گیری مناسب از توانمندی‌ها و ظرفیت‌های اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فنی ساکنان و جامعه‌ی محلی در ایجاد و تقویت مشارکت جامعه محلی بسیار مؤثر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification and Prioritization of Effective Factors on Preventing Participation of Rural Societies in Watershed Management Plans in Asman Abad Watershed of Ilam Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Jafari 1
  • Amin Salehpour Jam 2
1 Assistant Professor of Natural Resources and Watershed Research Department, Ilam Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Ilam, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction and Objective
The participation of villagers in watershed management activities has been paid attention to by the country's planners. Surveys have shown that the amount of people's participation was not as expected. This research is aimed at identifying the socio-economic characteristics of local communities, identifying indicators that are effective in reducing barriers and increasing public participation in the implementation of natural resources and watershed projects, understanding the expectations and needs of the local community, and finally providing scientific and technical solutions with the aim Increasing the amount of public participation was done in Asman Abad area of Cherdavel city.
Materials and Methods
In this research, the indicators influencing the non-participation of villagers in watershed management activities were determined and categorized based on four economic, social, design-executive and educational-promotional indicators and with 12 sub-indices. The necessary information in this research was collected in the form of a survey and using questionnaires, interviews and numerous meetings with community members and local experts. To determine the sample size from Cochran's correlation, SPSS software was used for data analysis and Cronbach's alpha was used to check the validity of the questionnaire.
 Results and Discussion
The results obtained from this research showed that in the Asman-Abad watershed, economic, design and implementation indicators played a greater role in people's non-participation than educational-promotional and social indicators. From the perspective of experts, the sub-index of ignoring people's income as a direct economic incentive and not paying attention to non-governmental organizations were the most and least important in people's non-participation, respectively, with an average rating of 9.35 and 3.69. From the point of view of the local communities, the sub-indices of ignoring the people's income as a direct economic incentive and not trusting the results and effectiveness of the projects are the most and the least important, respectively, with an average rating of 8.16 and 5.23 in the non-participation of the people. they had. The general result of the survey of local communities indicated that the factors of implementing multi-purpose projects and considering the interests of watershed residents can be the basis for trust and attracting active participation of people in watershed management projects.
Conclusion and Suggestions
In Asman Abad watershed, the prioritization of indicators affecting people's non-participation in watershed projects showed that economic and design-executive indicators played a greater role compared to educational-promotional and social indicators. Also, the results of the weights obtained from the Friedman test for ranking the sub-indices affecting people's non-participation showed that two sub-indices - ignoring the people's income as a direct economic incentive and not paying attention to the opinions and suggestions of the watershed residents in the different stages of needs assessment, design and the implementation of watershed projects, from the point of view of both groups, were in the first four priorities and were relatively more important in the non-participation of rural communities. Therefore, according to the findings of the research in order to create or improve people's participation in watershed management projects in the studied area, it is suggested that before the implementation of natural resources and watershed management projects, in relation to the existing problems, the conditions of the region and even the necessity of implementing the project Collect the points of view of the local community. Attracting the opinion of the residents of the watershed with the aim of cooperation in the implementation, protection, restoration and maintenance of projects, balanced and equal use of natural resources by the beneficiaries, appropriate use of the economic, social and technical abilities and capacities of the residents and the local community in creating and strengthening the participation of the local community is very effective Is.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Friedman test
  • Unsuspectinge tests
  • Cronbach's alpha
  • multi-criteria decision making
  • Cochran's relationship
Alvandi A, Sheikh V. 2014. The feasibility study on the use of decision support systems for participatory watershed management from the perspective of different groups of stakeholders (Case study: The Chel-chai Watershed, Golestan Province-Iran). Watershed Management Research (Pajouhesh and Sazandegi). 27 (4): 54-66.
Agidew A, Singh KN. 2018. Participation in watershed management programs in the Northeastern highlands of Ethiopia: A case study in the Teleyayen sub-watershed. Agidew and Singh Ecological Processes. 7(15): 7-15. Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-018-0128-6/ Accessed 10, July 2022.
Bagdi GL, Kurothe RS. 2014. People’s participation in watershed management programmes: Evaluation study of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra in India. International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2(3): 57-66.
Bagherian RA, Bahaman S, Asnarulkhadi AS, Shamsuddin A. 2009. A Soci Exchange approach to people’s participation in watershed management programs in Iran. European Journal of Scientific Research. 3)34(: 428-441.
Basiry Z, Rostami N, Salehpour jam A. 2020. Identification and prioritization of effective indicators on preventing sustainable participation of rural societies in combating desertification plans (Case study: Mousian Region, Dehloran). Journal of Spatial Analysis Environmental Hazards. 7 (3): 47-60. (In Persian).
Bagherian R, Goodarzi M, Sanaei Torqabah M, Bagherian A, Kalat. 2017. Investigation on dimensions of people’s participation in watershed management programs; Using Factor Analysis. Iran-Watershed Management Science and Engineering. 11(36): 69-75.
Clayton A. 2005. Empowerment people: A guide for participation (Translated By Piroz Izadi), Research Center Rural Issues, Tehran. pp. 65-83
Duram LA, Brown KG. 2010. Insights and applications assessing public participation in US watershed planning initiatives. Society and Natural Resources. 12(5): 455-467.
Feiznia S, Salehpour Jam A, Kianian MK. 2006. Investigation of preventing factors affecting on people participation in natural resources plans (Case study: Roude-Shoor Watershed area). Journal of Mountainous Environment. 6(1): 65-72. (In persian).
Jafari MR, Namaki M, Rezaei J. 2011. Evaluating the role of villagers' participation in watershed management activities in Ilam Province. Final Report of Research Project, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, Tehran. pp. 10-11
Jafari MR, Rezaei J, Seidzadeh H. 2013. Study on Population Distribtion Pattern and Human strength in ilam province Watersheds. Final Report of Research Project, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, Tehran. pp. 15-16.
Johnson N, Ravnborg HM, Westermann O, Probst K. 2002. User participation in watershed management and research. Water Policy. 3(6): 507-520.
Mansouri A, Salehpourjam A, Mohammadi M, Kianian MK. 2016. Investigation and prioritizing preventing factors of people participation in natural resources plans (Case study: Kan Watershed area, Tehran, Iran), 2th National Conference on Conservation of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil.  pp.  136-143.  (In persian).
Miller RC, Guertin PD, Heilman P. 2004. Information technology in watershed. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 40(2):347-357.
Moghadam R, Dinpanah GH, Zand F. 2013. Factors influence on economic- social effectiveness of watershed and natural resources plans. European Journal of Experimental Biology. 3(5): 400-406. (In Persian).
Mosaffaie J, Salehpour Jam A. 2018. Economic assessment of the investment in soil and water conservation projects of watershed management. Arabian Journal of Geosciences. DOI: 10.1007/s12517-018-3706-0.
Mosaffaie J, Ekhtesasi MR, Salehpour Jam A, Rajabi MR. 2017. Sediment source ascription in Vartavan catchment using composite fingerprint technique. Journal of Watershed Management Research. 8(16):123-131. (In Persian).
Mosaffaie J, Salehpour Jam A, Soltani MJ.2020. Identification and prioritization of effective factors on preventing participation of rural societies in watershed management plans case study (Niarij Watershed of Qazvin Province). Journal of Watershed Management Research. 11(22): 121-131. (In Persian).
Maleki M, Dehghani bidgoli R, Ghane Moghadam R. 2018. Investigating the effects of natural resources and watershed management plans implemented with the participation of field operators in rural development (Case study: Ghareh shiran Basin of the Nair City of Ardebil Province). Rural Development Strategies. 5(3): 347-362. (In Persian).
Mohammadi Golrang B, Lai FS, Sadeghi SHR. 2017. Evaluation of variables affecting people's participation in soil pasture and watershed management projects (Case study: Kouskabad Watershed in Khorasan Razavi). Journal of Research and Rural Planning. 6(17): 49-68. (In Persian).
Saaty Tl. 1980. The analytical hierarchy process: planning, priority, Resource Allocation. McGraw-Hill International Book Company. 287 p.
Saadoddin A, Alvandi E, Sheikh VB. 2015. Developing a decision support system for participatory and integrated management of the Chel-Chai Watershed, Golestan Province. Journal of Watershed Management Research. 6(11): 124-136. (In Persian).
Sulaimanpour SM, Salehpour Jam A, Nowrozi AA, Khalil N, Keshavarz H. 2019. Experts' point of view in prioritizing factors affecting the lack of sustainable participation of rural communities in watershed management projects in Moradabad Meimand Watershed, Fars Province. Journal of Watershed Research. 32(3): 53-62. (In Persian).
Salehi L. 2007. Investigation of effective factors on people participation in watershed management plans. 4th International Conference of Watershed Management, University of Tehran.  pp 128-135. (In Persian).
Salehpour Jam A, Sarreshtehdari A, Tabatabaei MR. 2018. Prioritizing preventing factors affecting on stakeholder's participation in watershed plans based on experts' idea, Case study: Watershed area surrounding city of Tehran. Journal of Watershed Engineering and Management. 9(4): 441-450. (In Persian).
Salehpour Jam, Tabatabaei MR, Mosaffaie J, Soltani MJ, Shadmani AR. 2021. Barriers to participatory implementation of soil conservation projects: Perspectives and priorities. Environmental Science and Policy. 131(1): 36-45. (In Persian).
Salehpour Jam A, Masfaei J, Tabatabai MR. 2020. Different views of the obstacles to people's participation in watershed management projects in the south of Arad, Ray city. Journal of Watershed Research. 34(2): 61-76. (In persian).
Singleton A, Taylor M. 1992. Common property, collective action and community. Jornal of Theoretical Politics. 4(3): 309-324.
Zarei M, Azmude A, Amirnezhad H, Pirnia A. 2014. Evaluation of effective factors on preventing participation of beneficieries in watershed management projects (Case study: Berenjestanak Watershed). Journal of Natural Resource Economics. 2(2): 63-72. (In Persian).