ارزیابی اثر کاربری‏ زمین و ویژگی‏ های خاک بر اندازه‌ی‌ سرب خاک آبخیز شهری شیراز با استفاده از زمین آمار و نقشه برداری رقومی خاک

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی مقطع دکتری بخش علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده ی کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز و رئیس اداره ی مطالعات و ترویج سازمان سیما، منظر و فضای سبز شهری شهرداری شیراز

2 استاد گروه مهندسی علوم خاک، دانشکده ی کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز

3 دانشیار گروه مهندسی علوم خاک، دانشکده ی کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز

10.22092/wmrj.2023.361155.1519

چکیده

مقدمه و هدف
توسعه‌ی شهری، چالش ­های زیست­ محیطی به‌همراه دارد، و یکی از این چالش ­ها، آلودگی خاک به فلزهای سنگین است که برای بهداشت و سلامت عمومی آبخیزنشینان بسیار نگران کننده است. یکی از فلزهای سنگین که در زیست­ بوم­ های شهری نقش مهمی در آلودگی خاک دارد، عنصر سرب است. سرب از دیرباز به‌وسیله‌ی بشر استفاده شده است و در دهه­ های اخیر بنزین سرب­ دار، یکی از منابع اصلی این آلاینده در آبخیزهای شهری است. استفاده از نقشه­ برداری رقومی خاک با استفاده از تابع‌های موجود در زمین ­آمار، پهنه ­بندی آلودگی خاک را در مقایسه با روش ­های قدیمی دچار تحول کرده است و می ­تواند به مدیریت بهینه‌ی آلودگی خاک منجر شود. افزون بر این، کاربری زمین می ­تواند تأثیر زیادی بر این مدیریت داشته باشد. هدف این پژوهش، پهنه­ بندی اندازه‌ی‌ فلز سنگین سرب خاک و ارتباط آن با کاربری زمین می­ باشد.
مواد و روش ­ها
منطقه‌ی مطالعه‌شده، آبخیز شهری شیراز با مساحت 41133 هکتار، به‌عنوان بخشی از آبخیز دریاچه‌ی مهارلو در بخش مرکزی شهرستان شیراز استان فارس در جنوب ایران بود. وضعیت رطوبتی و دمایی خاک­ های منطقه به‌ترتیب زریک و ترمیک می­ باشد. کاربری‏ های بررسی‌شده در این پژوهش شامل: زمین‌های بایر، پارک شهری، باغ و زمین‌های مرتعی کوهستانی بود. به‌منظور تعیین ویژگی­ های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک از هر کاربری 30 نمونه خاک از ژرفای صفر تا 20 سانتی ­متری برداشت شد. برای تولید نقشه­ های رقومی از سامانه‌ی اطلاعات جغرافیایی و مدل‌های زمین‌آماری واریوگرام کروی و نمایی استفاده شد. همچنین از روش کریجینگ برای برآورد ویژگی­ های فیزیکی، شیمیایی و اندازه‌ی‌ سرب استفاده شد.
نتایج و بحث
براساس نتایج این پژوهش تفاوت ویژگی ­های شیمیایی خاک مانند واکنش، کربنات‌کلسیم معادل و اندازه‌ی‌ مواد آلی در کاربری‌های مختلف معنی‌دار بود. همچنین اندازه‌ی‌ ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی و آلودگی سرب در سطح 0/01 معنی­ دار بود. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که در خاک‌های آبخیز شهری شیراز، اندازه‌ی سرب تحت تأثیر برخی از ویژگی­ های شیمیایی خاک مانند ماده آلی و ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی بود. در منطقه‌ی بررسی‌شده در کاربری‌های مختلف زمین‌ ، روند آلودگی سرب به این گونه بود: زمین‌های مرتعی کوهستانی < باغ < پارک شهری < زمین‌های بایر.
نتیجه ­گیری و پیشنهادها
نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که کاربری­ های مختلف زمین می ­توانند بر اندازه‌ی‌ سرب تأثیرگذار باشند. با توجه به مشکل آلودگی خاک در آبخیزهای شهری و تأثیر مهم کاربری زمین در اندازه‌ی‌ آن، انجام طرح­ های پژوهشی و توسعه‌ی شهری برای بررسی‌های دقیق کاربری زمین و ارتباط آن با دیگر ویژگی­ های محیطی از جمله آلودگی خاک پیشنهاد می‏ شود. همچنین انجام پژوهش ­های بیشتر موضعی و موضوعی در زیست ­بوم‌های شهری بر تأثیر انواع گونه ­های گیاهی بر اندازه‌ی‌ فلزهای سنگین در خاک بررسی شده پیشنهاد می­ شود تا با کاشت آن نوع پوشش گیاهی به آلودگی ­زدایی خاک کمک شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the Effect of Land Use and Soil Properies on the Amount of Lead in Shiraz Urban Watershed Soils, Using Geostatistics and Digital Soil Mapping

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Javad Naghibi 1
  • Majid Baghernejad 2
  • Seyed Ali Abtahi 2
  • Seyed Ali Akbar Mousavi 2
  • Mehdi Zarei 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Soil Sciences, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran and Head of Research and Extention of Green Space and Landscape Organization of Shiraz Municipality
2 Professor, Department of Soil Sciences, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Sciences, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction and Objective
Urbanization has led to environmental challenges; one of these challenges is heavy metal contamination in which is a serious concern for the public health and health of watershed residents issues. One of the heavy metals that play a major role in soil pollution in urban ecosystems is Lead (Pb). Pb has been used by humans for a long time, and in recent decades, leaded gasoline is one of the main sources of this pollutant in urban watersheds. The use of digital soil mapping using the functions available in geostatistics has changed the zoning of soil pollution compared to the old methods and can lead to the optimal management of soil pollution while land use can also have a great impact on this management. The aim of this research is to determine the amount of Pb heavy metal in soil and its relationship with land use.
Materials and methods
The study area was Shiraz urban watershed with an area of ​​41133 hectares, as a part of the Maharloo lake watershed, located in the central part of Shiraz township, Fars province in the south of Iran. Soil moisture and temperature regims of study area are xeric and thermic respectively. The studied land uses were bare lands, urban parks, gardens and mountain range lands In order to determine the physical and chemical properties of the soil, 30 soil samples were taken from the depth of 0 to 20 cm from each land use. Geographic information system (GIS) and spherical and exponential variogram geostatistical models were used to produce digital maps. Kriging method was also used to estimate the physical and chemical properties, and the amount of Pb.
Results and discussion
Based on the results of this research, the difference in soil chemical properties such as reaction, equivalent calcium carbonate and the amount of organic matter in different uses was significant. Also, the amount of cation exchange capacity and lead pollution was significant at the level of 0.01. The results of this research showed that in urban watershed soils of Shiraz, the amount of Pb was influenced by some chemical characteristics of the soil such as organic matter and cation exchange capacity. In the studied area in different land uses, the trend of Pb contamination was as follows: mountain range lands < gardens < urban parks < bare lands.
Conclusions and suggestions
The results of current research showed that different land uses can affect the amount of Pb. Considering the problem of soil pollution in urban watersheds and the important effect of land use on its amout, it is suggested to carry out research and urban development projects for detailed investigations of land use and its relationship with other environmental characteristics, including soil pollution. It is also suggested to carry out more local and thematic researches in urban ecosystems on the effect of various types of plant species on the amount of heavy metals in the examined soil, so that by planting that type of vegetation, soil decontamination can be helped.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban watershed
  • lead
  • GIS
  • kriging
Alengebawy A, Abdelkhalek ST, Qureshi SR, Wang MQ. 2021. Heavy metals and pesticides toxicity in agricultural soil and plants: Ecological risks and human health implications. Toxics. 42 p.
Alengebawy A, Abdelkhalek ST, Qureshi SR, Wang MQ. 2021. Heavy metals and pesticides toxicity in agricultural soil and plants: Ecological risks and human health implications. Toxics. 42 p. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9030042.
Appiah SK, Aidoo EN, Owusu DA, Nuonabuor MW. 2018. Geostatistical analysis of contamination of soils in an urban area in Ghana. International Journal of Mathematical and Computational Sciences. 12(6):139-147. http://scholar.waset.org/1307-6892/10009292.
Asemave K, Anhwange BA. 2012. Evaluation of heavy metals in waste dumpsites. Germany, Lambert Academic Publishing; 36 p. ISBN: 978-3-659-37380-0.
Barzin M, Kheirabadi H, Afyuni M. 2015. An investigation into pollution of selected heavy metals of surface soils in Hamadan Province using pollution index. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 19(72): 69-80. (In Persian). http://dx.doi.org/10.18869/acadpub.jstnar.19.72.7
Chapman HD. 1965. Cation‐exchange capacity. Methods of soil analysis: Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties. 9:891-901. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronmonogr9.2.c6
Chen T, Liu X, Li X, Zhao K, Zhang J, Xu J, Shi J, Dahlgren RA. 2009. Heavy metal sources identification and sampling uncertainty analysis in a field-scale vegetable soil of Hangzhou, China. Environmental Pollution. 157(3):1003-1010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2008.10.011
Cheng H, Li M, Zhao C, Li K, Peng M, Qin A, Cheng X. 2014. Overview of trace metals in the urban soil of 31 metropolises in China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 139 (1):31-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2013.08.012
Design G. 2004. Geostatistics for the environmental science version 7. Gamma Design, USA. 159 p.
Enjavinezhad SM, Kasraian A. 2014. Comparison of the distribution of heavy elements of Lead and Cadmium around two highways in Shiraz. The 1st National Conference on Sustainable Management of Soil and Environment Resources, Kerman. (In Persian).8 p.
Ersahin S. 2003. Comparing ordinary kriging and cokriging to estimate infiltration rate. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 67(6):1848-1855. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2003.1848
Fan Y, Li Y, Li H, Cheng F. 2018. Evaluating heavy metal accumulation and potential risks in soil-plant systems applied with magnesium slag-based fertilizer. Chemosphere. 197:382-388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.01.055
FAO. 2015. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014. World Soil Resources Report No. 106. ISSS–ISRIC–FAO, Italy, Rome. 203 p.
Golia E, Tsiropoulos NG, Dimirkou A, Mitsios I. 2007. Distribution of heavy metals of agricultural soils of central Greece using the modified BCR sequential extraction method. International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry. 87(13-14):1053-1063. https://doi.org/10.1080/03067310701451012
Hazelton P, Murphy B. 2016. Interpreting soil test results: What do all the numbers mean?. CSIRO publishing. Hong AH, Law PL, Onni SS. 2014. Environmental burden of heavy metal contamination levels in soil from sewage irrigation area of Geriyo Catchment, Nigeria. Civil and Environmental Research. 6(10):118-124.
Islam MS, Ahmed MK, Al-Mamun MH, Eaton DW. 2020. Human and ecological risks of metals in soils under different land-use types in an urban environment of Bangladesh. Pedosphere. 30(2):201-213 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(17)60395-3.
Islam S, Ahmed K, Al-Mamun H. 2015. Distribution of trace elements in different soils and risk assessment: A case study for the urbanized area in Bangladesh. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 158: 212-222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2015.07.017
Kishe MA, Machiwa JF. 2003. Distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Environment International. 28(7): 619-625. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(02)00099-5
Loeppert RH, Suarez DL. 1996. Carbonate and gypsum. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 3 Chemical Methods. 5: 437-474. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssabookser5.3.c15
Lorenz K, Lal R. 2015. Managing soil carbon stocks to enhance the resilience of urban ecosystems. Carbon Management. 6(1-2):35-50. https://doi.org/10.1080/17583004.2015.1071182
Mihailović A, Budinski-Petković L, Popov S, Ninkov J, Vasin J, Ralević NM, Vasić MV. 2015. Spatial distribution of metals in urban soil of Novi Sad, Serbia: GIS based approach. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 150: 104-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.12.017
Nangia SB. 1991. Soil pollution. New Delhi. Ashish Publishing House.
Nelson DW, Sommers LE. 1996. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 3 Chemical Methods. 5:961-1010. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssabookser5.3.c34
Paltseva A, Cheng Z, Deeb M, Groffman PM, Maddaloni M. 2018. Variability of bioaccessible Lead in urban garden soils. Soil Science. 183(4):123-131. DOI: 10.1097/SS.0000000000000232
Paltseva AA, Cheng Z, Egendorf SP, Groffman PM. 2020. Remediation of an urban garden with elevated levels of soil contamination. Science of the Total Environment. 722:137965p. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137965
Reza SK, Baruah U, Singh SK, Das TH. 2015. Geostatistical and multivariate analysis of soil heavy metal contamination near coal mining area, Northeastern India. Environmental Earth Sciences. 73(9): 5425-5433. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3797-1
Rhoades JD. 1996. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. Methods of Soil Analysis Part 3-Chemical Methods, (methodsofsoilan3). pp. 417-435.
Rhoades JD. 1996. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. Methods of soil analysis: Part 3 Chemical methods. 5:417-35. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssabookser5.3.c14
Rowell DL. 1994. Soil science: Methods and applications. Harlow, Essex (UK): Longman Scientific and Technical.
Rowell, D.L. 1994. Soil Science Methods and applications. Longman Scientific and Technical .Harlow. Essex. UK.
Savva Y, Szlavecz K, Pouyat RV, Groffman PM, Heisler G. 2010. Effects of land use and vegetation cover on soil temperature in an urban ecosystem. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 74(2): 469-480. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2009.0107
Shchepeleva AS, Vasenev VI, Mazirov IM, Vasenev II, Prokhorov IS, Gosse DD. 2017. Changes of soil organic carbon stocks and CO2 emissions at the early stages of urban turf grasses’ development. Urban Ecosystems. 20(2):309-321. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-016-0594-5
Shomali AR, Khodaverdilo H. 2012. Contamination of soils and plants along Urmia Salmas highway (Iran) to some heavy metals. Journal of Water and Soil Science. 22(3):157-172. (In Persian).
Škrbić BD, Buljovčić M, Jovanović G, Antić I. 2018. Seasonal, spatial variations and risk assessment of heavy elements in street dust from Novi Sad, Serbia. Chemosphere. 205: 452-462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.04.124
Smagin AV. 2012. Theory and practice of soil engineering. Moscow, MSU Press. 544 p.
Taalab AS, Ageeb GW, Siam HS, Mahmoud SA. 2019. Some characteristics of calcareous soils. A review AS Taalab1, GW Ageeb2, Hanan S. Siam1 and Safaa A. Mahmoud1. Middle East J.  Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research 8(1):96-105.
Vasenev VI, Van Oudenhoven APE, Romzaykina ON, Hajiaghaeva RA. 2018. The ecological functions and ecosystem services of urban and technogenic soils: from theory to practice (a review). Eurasian Soil Science. 51(10):1119-1132. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229318100137
Wang Y, Zhang X, Huang C. 2009. Spatial variability of soil total nitrogen and soil total phosphorus under different land uses in a small watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. Geoderma. 150(1-2):141-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.01.021 
Wang Z, Hong C, Xing Y, Wang K, Li Y, Feng L, Ma S. 2018. Spatial distribution and sources of heavy metals in natural pasture soil around copper-molybdenum mine in Northeast China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 154:329-336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.02.048
Weissert LF, Salmond JA, Schwendenmann L. 2016. Variability of soil organic carbon stocks and soil CO2 efflux across urban land use and soil cover types. Geoderma. 271:80-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.02.014
Wu J, Lu J, Li L, Min X, Luo Y. 2018. Pollution, ecological-health risks, and sources of heavy metals in soil of the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Chemosphere. 201:234-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.02.122
Wu S, Peng S, Zhang X, Wu D, Luo W, Zhang T, Zhou S, Yang G, Wan H, Wu L. 2015. Levels and health risk assessments of heavy metals in urban soils in Dongguan, China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 148:71-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.08.009
Xiaobing WANG, Wuxing LIU, Zhengao LI, Ying TENG, Christie P, Yongming LUO. 2020. Effects of long-term fertilizer applications on peanut yield and quality and plant and soil heavy metal accumulation. Pedosphere. 30(4): 555-562. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(17)60457-0
Yang JL, Zhang GL. 2015. Formation, characteristics and eco-environmental implications of urban soils–a review. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 61(sup1): 30-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.2015.1035622
Ye L, Tan W, Fang L, Ji L, Deng H. 2018. Spatial analysis of soil aggregate stability in a small catchment of the Loess Plateau, China: I. Spatial variability. Soil and Tillage Research. 179: 71-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2018.01.012
Yuan Y, Cave M, Xu H, Zhang C. 2020. Exploration of spatially varying relationships between Pb and Al in urban soils of London at the regional scale using geographically weighted regression (GWR). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 393: 122377pp. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122377