تحلیل اقتصادی قابلیت نگهداشت کربن خاک در پارک ملی بمو استان فارس

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشی بخش تحقیقات اقتصادی، اجتماعی و ترویجی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع‌طبیعی استان فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شیراز، ایران

2 مربی پژوهشی بخش تحقیقات حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع‌طبیعی استان فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شیراز، ایران

10.22092/wmrj.2023.360369.1496

چکیده

مقدمه
گاز دی‌اکسیدکربن که از کاربرد سوخت‌های فسیلی صنایع در مراکز صنعتی و نزدیکی کلان شهرها تولید می‌شود، سهم زیادی در تغییر اقلیم و گرمایش جهانی دارد. نگهداشت کربن در گیاهان و خاک منطقه‌های حفاظت‌شده به‌ویژه پارک‌های ملی طبیعی، ساده‌ترین و اقتصادی‌ترین راه‌کار برای کاهش دی‌اکسیدکربن جو است. پارک ملی بمو با مساحت 46913 هکتار در نزدیکی مراکز صنعتی شیراز، زرقان، مرودشت و آب‌باریک؛ ظرفیت بزرگی را برای نگهداشت کربن فراهم کرده است. در این پژوهش تحلیل اقتصادی قابلیت نگهداشت کربن در خاک این پارک در سال 1401، انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها
براساس شرایط پوشش گیاهی و زمین‌ریخت‌شناسی، به‌ترتیب 20 و 5 جایگاه در داخل و خارج پارک برای نمونه‌گیری گزینش شد. نمونه‌های مرکب خاک از 25 نیم‌رمرخ‌ به ژرفای 30 و درازا و پهنای 20، سانتی‌متر، برداشت شد. درصد کربن آلی خاک در آزمایشگاه با روش والکلی-بلک تعیین شد. ارزیابی اقتصادی کربن نگهداشت‌شده با روش هزینه‌ی خسارت اجتناب‌شده در سه سطح کم و براساس ارزش تجارت در صندوق کربن، متوسط و براساس برآورد آینده‌ی تجارت کربن اتحادیه اروپا و زیاد براساس برآورد هیأت بین‌دولتی تغییر اقلیم انجام شد.
نتایج
براساس نتایج اندازه‌های میانگین کربن نگهداشت‌شده در خاک زمین‌های داخل و خارج پارک به‌ترتیب 40/05 و 21/75 تن در هکتار بود. براساس آزمون t اندازه‌های میانگین کربن نگهداشت‌شده داخل و خارج پارک در سطح 1% تفاوت معنی‌دار داشت. میانگین ارزش اقتصادی خسارت اجتناب‌شده مربوط به نگهداشت کربن به ازای هر هکتار زمین در داخل پارک در سطح‌های کم، متوسط و زیاد، به‌ترتیب 123/12، 410/41 و 3283/26 میلیون ریال برآورد شد. اندازه‌های متناظر در خارج از پارک به‌ترتیب 66/86، 222/88 و 1783/04 میلیون ریال برآورد شد. میانگین ارزش اقتصادی کربن نگهداشت‌شده در خاک هر هکتار زمین داخل و خارج پارک براساس آزمون t در سطح یک درصد تفاوت معنی‌دار داشت.
نتیجه‌گیری و پیشنهادها
شرایط مناسب پوشش گیاهی و خاک پارک ملی بمو سبب‌شده به‌دلیل خدمات زیست‌محیطی نگهداشت کربن در خاک و جذب گاز دی‌اکسیدکربن، این پارک ارزش اقتصادی زیادی داشته ‌باشد. بنابراین این امکان وجود دارد که ارزش اقتصادی چنین خدماتی در محاسبه‌های مالی لحاظ شود و همه یا بخشی از آن برای حفاظت و گسترش این پارک‌ها در نظر گرفته شود. نکته‌ی مهم درباره‌ی ارزش اقتصادی خدمات پارک‌ها و زیست‌بوم‌های جنگلی، امکان خرید و فروش کربن نگهداشت‌شده و یا گاز دی‌اکسیدکربن منتشر‌شده در جو می‌باشد. برای این منظور پیشنهاد می‌شود به چارچوب‌های قانونی و زیرساخت‌های لازم برای ایجاد بازار کاربردی نگهداشت کربن و انتشار گاز دی‌اکسیدکربن در سطح‌های ملی و منطقه‌ای توجه شود. افزون بر این، با توجه به قابلیت‌های طبیعی استان و معیارهای معاهده‌های بین‌المللی تغییر اقلیم، امکان استفاده از سرمایه‌ی خارجی برای کمک به ایجاد و گسترش پارک‌های ملی و زیست‌بوم‌های جنگلی به‌عنوان مخزن‌های گازهای گلخانه‌ای وجود دارد. بنابراین، پیشنهاد می‌شود از این راه‌کار‌های قانونی برای جذب اعتبار از سازمان‌های بین‌المللی استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Economic Analysis of Soil Carbon Sequestration Capability in the National Bamou Park, Fars Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roham Rahmani 1
  • Seyed Hamid Mesbah 2
1 Assistant Professor of Economic, Social and Extension Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Shiraz, Iran
2 Research Instructor of soil Conservation and Watershed management Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Carbon dioxide gas, produced from fossil fuels in industrial centres and near big cities, has a significant effect on climate change and global warming. Sequestration of carbon in plants and soil of protected areas, especially national natural parks, is the simplest and most economical way to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide. The National Bamou Park, with an area of 46,913 hectares near the industrial centres of Shiraz, Zarghan, Maroodasht and Abbarik, provided a good chance for carbon sequestration. In this research economic analysis of this park's soil carbon sequestration capability in 2022 was done.
Materials and Methods
Based on vegetation cover and geomorphological conditions, 20 and 5 locations inside and outside the park were selected for sampling. Composite soil samples were taken from the 25 profiles with a depth of 30 cm length and width of 20 cm. The Wallcly-Black method was used to determine the percentage of soil organic carbon in the laboratory. The economic evaluation of the sequestered carbon was done using the damage cost avoided method at three levels: low estimate based on the values of trade in the Prototype Carbon Fund, medium estimate based on anticipated values in the future European Union carbon trading scheme and high estimate based on the damage cost assessment made by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Results
Based on the results, the average measures of carbon sequestered in the soil of the lands inside and outside the park were 40.05 and 21.75 tons per hectare, respectively. Based on the t-test, the average carbon sequestered inside and outside the park significantly differs at 1%. The average economic value of avoided damage related to carbon sequestration per hectare of land inside the park at low, medium and high levels are 123.12, 410.41 and 3283.26 million rials, respectively. The corresponding amounts outside the park are 66.86, 222.88 and 1783.04 million rials. The average economic value of sequestered carbon in the soil of each hectare of land inside and outside the park, based on the t-test, has a significant difference at the level of 1%.
Conclusions and Recommendations
The suitable conditions of vegetation and soil of Bamou National Park have caused this park to have a high economic value because of the environmental services of carbon sequestration in the soil and absorption of carbon dioxide gas. Thus, it is possible the economic value of such services is considered in financial calculations, and all or part of it is allocated for the protection and expansion of these parks. An important point about the economic value of the parks and forest ecosystems services is the possibility of buying and selling carbon sequestered or carbon dioxide gas emitted into the atmosphere. For this purpose, it is suggested to pay attention to the legal frameworks and necessary infrastructures for creating an applied market of carbon sequestration and carbon dioxide emission at the national and regional levels. In addition, concerning the natural resources of Fars province and the criteria of international climate change agreements, it is possible to use foreign capital to help create and expand national parks and forest ecosystems as greenhouse gas reservoirs. Therefore, it is suggested to use these legal agreements to attract credit from international organizations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carbon sequestration
  • damage cost avoided method
  • Fars
  • national Bamou park
  • soil
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