تحلیل شاخص های پارامتریک تنوع و تشابه بانک بذر در توالی های مختلف مراتع احیاء شده با گیاه غیربومی آتریپلکس کانسنس

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مرتعداری دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 استادیار گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

3 عضو هیأت علمی گروه مرتعداری دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

4 مربی پژوهش مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گلستان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

ترکیب و مقدار بانک بذر خاک در اثر عوامل مدیریتی احیایی اکوسیستم­ها تغییر می‌نماید، درک این تغییرات می‌تواند راهنمای مناسبی در تفسیر تغییرات پوشش گیاهی تحت تأثیر عملیات احیا باشد. بدین منظور، این تحقیق به بررسی تغییرات حاصل از عملیات اصلاحی بوته­کاری گیاه غیربومی آتریپلکس کانسنس(Atriplex canescens) بر روی بانک بذر خاک در توالی‌های مختلف سنی در مراتع چپرقویمه گنبد کاووس پرداخته است. نمونه‌برداری در سه توده دست‌کاشت آتریپلکس دو، ده و بیست­ساله که از نظر عوامل محیطی، همگنی و تشابه داشتند، در مکان­های زیر بوته‌ها و بین بوته‌ها صورت پذیرفت. علاوه بر این، در مجاورت هر سایت یک منطقه شاهد که در آن بوته­کاری انجام نشده بود نمونه­برداری برای مقایسه انجام شد. در مجموع 54 نمونه خاک از عمق سطحی خاک با رویکرد تصادفی- سیستماتیک قبل از شروع فصل رویش نمونه‌برداری شد و سپس نمونه‌های خاک برای سبزشدن بذور به گلخانه منتقل شدند. داده­های مربوط به گونه­های سبزشده جمع‌آوری شد و نمودار دسته- فراوانی برای هر یک از سایت‌های مورد بررسی، ترسیم و همچنین مدل‌های توزیع فراوانی شامل سری هندسی، سری لگاریتمی، عصای شکسته و لوگ نرمال بر روی داده­ها برازش شد و بهترین مدل توزیعی انتخاب گشت. همچنین شاخص تشابه جاکارد و خوشه­بندی مقسّمی برای سایت‌های مختلف محاسبه و رسم شد. نتایج نمودار دسته- فراوانی مکان­های مورد بررسی نشان داد که منحنی تیمار شاهد تمامی سایت‌ها دارای شیب تندتری نسبت به منحنی تیمارهای زیر و بین‌بوته می‌باشد بنابراین تنوع گونه‌ای بانک بذر سایت شاهد پایین‌تر است. مدل عصای شکسته و لوگ نرمال نیز با تیمارهای سایت بیست ساله تطابق داشته که نشان­‌دهنده‌ جوامع با ثبات و با تنوع و یکنواختی بالا می‌باشد. نتایج حاصل از شاخص تشابه جاکارد نیز نشان داد در سایت ده ساله تشابه گونه‌ای بانک بذر خاک در تیمار زیر بوته و بین بوته بیشترین مقدار (75/0) را  دارند و در سایت بیست ساله این تشابه به حداکثر میزان خود می‌رسد. نتایج کلی نشان می‌دهد که احیای مراتع به وسیله کاشت گیاه آتریپلکس موجب افزایش تنوع گونه‌ای بانک بذر خاک در مناطق مورد مطالعه داشته است که البته میزان این تغییرات به مدت زمان اجرای آن نیز بستگی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyses of Parametric Diversity and Similarity Indices in Seed Bank at Various Consequences of Restored Rangeland by Non native

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Mojtahedi 1
  • Esmaeil Sheidai Karkaj 2
  • Hamid Niknahad Gharamakher 3
  • Seyed Ali Hosseini 4
1 Msc Garaduated In Rangeland Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences And Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
2 Assistant professor, Department of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
3 Academic Member of Rangeland and watershed Management Faculty, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences And Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
4 Research instructor, Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center. Gorgan. Iran
چکیده [English]

The composition and amount of the soil seed bank will change by Management factor ecosystems, Understanding these changes can help explain vegetation change is affect resuscitation. For this purpose, this study examines the changes resulting from corrective action of planet non-native Atriplex canescens plant. Sampling in the three masses planting of Atriplex two, ten and twenty years in terms of environmental factors, and the homogeneity of similarities in places under the shrubs, between the shrubs were taken. In addition, a control area adjacent to each site where the plant had not been done to compare the sampling was done. In total 54 soil samples from the soil surface depth with approach Random – systematic before the start of the growing season Samples were taken and then soil samples were transferred to the greenhouse for seed germination. Data were collected species of grown and rank-abundance plot diagram For each of the sites studied, Traced and also Frequency distribution models Included Geometric, Log-series, Broken-stick and Log-normal  On the data's Were fitted and Was selected The best model distribution. Also, Jaccard similarity index and divider clustering for different sites were calculated and plotted. The results of rank-abundance plot diagram Studied Places shows the Curve from control plots all sites have steeper from plot curve under and between shrubs has so species diversity of seed bank control Site is lower. Broken-stick model and Log-Normal conform to the treatment site 20, which represents a stable community with high diversity and evenness. The results also showed Jaccard similarity index the 10-year-old site under shrub and between shrubs are Maximum Likelihood (0.75) Soil seed banks and also in 20-years-old sites this similarity reaches its maximum. The overall results indicate that restoration of rangeland by planting Atriplex cause Increase the species diversity of soil seed bank in study area the of course the amount this changes depends on Duration of its implementation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil seed bank
  • species diversity
  • frequency distributional models
  • Jaccard similarity index
  • Clustering
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