مهم ترین عامل‌های مؤثر بر توان آب زیرزمینی در آبخیز پیرانشهر (آذربایجان غربی) با مدل MaxEnt و سامانه‌ی اطلاعات جغرافیایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، مجتمع آموزش عالی شیروان

2 دکترای علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

آب­ زیرزمینی یکی از مهم­ترین و حیاتی­ترین منابع طبیعی در منطقه‌های خشک و نیمه­خشک است. هدف از این پژوهش شناختن منطقه‌هایی که توان آب زیرزمینی دارد، و اولویت­بندی‌کردن عامل‌های مؤثر بر آن است. در این پژوهش 14 شاخص تأثیرگزار بر توان آب زیرزمینی شامل شیب، ارتفاع، جهت شیب، انحنای پستی‌وبلندی، فاصله از آب‌راه، تراکم زه‌کشی، فاصله از گسل، تراکم گسل، شاخص رطوبت پستی‌وبلندی، موقعیت پستی‌وبلندی، سختی پستی‌وبلندی، سنگ­شناسی، کاربری زمین‌، و موقعیت شیب نسبی به‌کاربرده شد. به‌روش تصادفی 30% از مجموع 145 چشمه در گروه داده­های اعتبارسنجی و 70% آن در گروه داده­های آموزش گذاشته شد. برای اولویت‌بندی‌کردن عامل‌های مؤثر و پهنه­بندی‌کردن توان آب زیرزمینی در آبخیز پیرانشهر روش بیشینه‌ی آنتروپی و مدل MaxEnt با بهره­گیری از ArcGIS، و برای ارزیابی‌کردن مدل منحنی تشخیص عمل‌کرد نسبی (ROC) به‌کاربرده شد. نتیجه‌‌ها نشان داد که توان آب زیرزمینی در 33/6% حوزه­ی آبخیز، بیش‌تر در مرکز آبخیز، است. بر اساس نمودار جکنایف لایه­های شاخص رطوبت پستی‌وبلندی، ارتفاع، سنگ­شناسی (ماسه­سنگ و پلمه‌سنگ)، سختی پستی‌وبلندی، موقعیت پستی‌وبلندی، و شیب به‌ترتیب مهم­ترین عامل‌های تأثیرگزار بر توان آب زیرزمینی بود. سطح زیر منحنی (AUC) نشان­دهنده‌ی دقت 93% (عالی) روش بیشینه‌ی آنتروپی در مرحله‌ی آموزش، و 81% (خیلی خوب) در مرحله‌ی اعتبارسنجی برای شناختن منطقه‌های دارنده‌ی توان آب زیرزمینی بود. نتیجه‌ی این پژوهش ممکن است در مدیریت‌کردن آب زیرزمینی آبخیز پیرانشهر در رویارویی با افزایش جمعیت به‌کار برده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Most Important Factors that Affect the Potential of Groundwater Resources Piranshahr Watershed (West Azarbaijan) Using the MaxEnt Model and the GIS

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Teimouri 1
  • Omid Asadi Nalivan 2
1 Assistant professor, Higher Education Complex of Shirvan, Iran
2 Ph.D. in Watershed Management Sciences and Engineering, the Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran
چکیده [English]

Groundwater is the most important and vital natural resource in arid and semi-arid regions. The purpose of the study is to determine the potential of groundwater in different areas of the watershed and prioritize the factors affecting it. Fourteen indices were used which affect groundwater potential namely slope, elevation, slope aspect, topographic curvature, distance from any stream, drainage density, distance from a fault, fault density, topography humidity index, lithology, land use, relative slope position, topographic position, and topographic hardness. Moreover, from the 145 springs, 30% were randomly classified as the validation data and 70% were categorized as the test data. The maximum entropy method and the MaxEnt model was used to prioritize the effective factors and zonation of groundwater potential using the ArcGIS in the Piranshahr Watershed. Further, the ROC model was used to evaluate the developed model. The results indicated that 33.6% of the watershed had groundwater potential, which is located mostly in its center. Based on the jackknife chart, humidity, topography, DEM, lithology (sandstone and shale), topographic hardness, topographic position and slope were the most important factors influencing the groundwater potential. The area under the curve shows an accuracy of 93% (excellent) at the training stage and 81% (very good) at the validation stage for the determination of the watershed groundwater potential. The results of this research may be used to manage the groundwater resources of the Piranshahr Watershed, especially with regards to imminent population growth.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geographic Information System
  • Groundwater potential
  • Machine learning
  • MaxEnt model
  • Maximum Entropy
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